- Editing symbols worksheet
- Complex sentences worksheet (run-ons, fragments, comma splices)
- List of editing symbols (reference)
- Read most of chapter 1 of “Little Plum”.
You will need a notebook to take notes about vocabulary, British customs, history, etc., that come up in class as we read the “Little Plum” story.
- (from last week) Type a self-introduction letter using MSWord and using the letter format in the handout from last week. Send it to me by email as an attachment 添付ファイル
- Finish reading chapter 1.
- Read chapter 2 and prepare for next week:
- look up the words you don’t know
- make notes about things you learn
Today we read almost all of chapter 1 of “Little Plum” by Rumer Godden. In order to get an image or understanding of what kind of place Britain is, if you have never been there, let’s use the Internet to do some virtual travel.
First, here are some pictures of a High Street:
- in Lincoln
- in Chelmsford in 1895 (over 100 years ago, but you see what a long history the “High Street” has)
- in Scunthorpe in 1973 (“Little Plum” was published in 1962, so this photo shows you what England looked like at about that time)
- in a pretty village called Pinner (don’t know where it is!), which shows some “listed buildings”, which means they are protected by law because they are old and beautiful,
- a high street in London.
What is a “market town”? It’s a town which is allowed to have a market (in the old days, the king’s permission was needed to have a market). Wikipedia tells us:
In pre-19th century England, the majority of the population made their living through agriculture and livestock farming. Most lived where they worked, with relatively few [people living] in towns. Therefore, farmers and their wives brought their produce to informal markets held after worship on the grounds of their church. Market towns were an important feature of rural life… Market towns often grew up close to fortified places such as castles, to enjoy their protection. Framlingham in Suffolk is a notable example. Markets were located where transport was easiest, such as at a crossroads or close to a river ford. When local railway lines were first built, market towns were given priority to ease the transport of goods.
So, “market towns” are usually old towns with a history of people bringing things to the town to sell them. Here are some pictures of some market towns in England:
- Market Drayton
- Market Harborough
- Chipping Norton (“Chipping” comes from a Saxon verb meaning “to buy”)
Here you can see how hedges separate people’s property. Here’s a very old and pretty hedge. Here you can see how hedges are used in England to give privacy from the street, and here you can see how a hedge is used to give privacy from the neighbours.
Here’s a picture of a gravel drive. This house is very old, much older than “The House Next Door”, I think.
- Here’s a picture of a house with a lawn and a hedge, and a “house next door”.
- Here’s another picture of a lawn and a garden, and
- here’s another one (this house is very old, from Shakespeare’s time!).
- Here’s a more modern one (notice the hedge)
- and another modern one in the university town of Cambridge
I found this photo of two “maiko” by searching for “little plum” on Flickr. Are these two “Miss Happiness and Miss Flower”?
The word “plum” has very different associations for English people than the word “ume” 梅 has for Japanese. Here’s a picture that shows you what many English people will think of when you say “plum”.